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tv   Book Discussion on The Future of the Mind  CSPAN  April 27, 2014 8:00am-9:20am EDT

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if not vocal cord, but -- uh-oh. this is counselor hartnet. >> i was struck by the parallels, some of the quotes, the anti-irish quotes and things that could be said today. is there a parallel to tammany in any way today, and if not, why? ..
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[applause] >> we are good? at risk of sounding theory mercenary, first about, it's not about me. it's about my friends. [laughter] [applause] and now i will be selling books outside. whatever you want.
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thank you for coming out. [applause] [inaudible conversations] >> next on boutique on key the michio kaku tags abut the least of these brave sides. he says their understanding of the greater technological advancements make it possible to record memories and dreams come to indicate telepathically in control robots with our minds. this is about an hour and 15 minutes. [applause]
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>> well, after such a great introduction, i can't wait to hear the speaker myself. sometimes so these introductions can backfire. recently, new york magazine voted me as one of the 100 smartest people in new york city. i thought wow, what an honor. but in all fairness, i have to admit that madonna also made that same list. [laughter] i understand that next year baby gaga is going to push me off the list entirely. now today i'm going to talk about the future, the future -- "the future of the mind" and they say that talking about the future is dangerous. let me quote from the great philosopher of the western world, yuki berra. yogi berra once said prediction
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is often hard to do, especially if it about the future. well, i'm a physicist. we can predict the future of the universe billions of years into the future. so let me quote from the other great philosopher, woody allen. he once said, quote, eternity is an awful lot time, especially towards the ad. [laughter] you may say to yourself, what does a physicist know about the mind? what does a physicist know about daily life? we are the ones who invented the transistor. we invented the laser. we hope to assemble the first computer and the internet. we wrote the world wide web and along the way we invented television. we invented radio, radar,
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microwaves, x-ray machines and don't forget, we created this post kirkham and the gps satellite family left to make projections. but we hope to assemble the internet, one physicist predicted that the internet would become a forum of high culture, high art and high society. [laughter] today we know that 5% of the internet is. but that's because teenage boys log onto the internet. just wait until the grandma and grandpa's log onto the internet. than 50% of the internet will be. and again, you can save yourself from how to speesix differ from chemistry or the other sciences? let me say a little story. during world war ii, once the
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nazis captured american scientists and they call them spies. they're about to be executed by firing squad. it was a geologist come a physicist and a chemist about to be shot by the firing squad, by the trader living. just as they were about to push the trigger, all of a sudden a geologist says earthquake, earthquake. chaos broke out in in the chaos the geologist nicollet. now it's just a physicist and chemist. they were lined up in the firing squad and suddenly the physicist to lightning, lightning. in the chaos and the physicist speaks away. now it's just a chemist. so they line up their rifles and all of a sudden the camera says
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fire, fire. sometimes it just doesn't pay. so anyway, today i'm going to talk about the future of the mind. ever since i was a child, i've been fascinated by two things. first fascinated by outer space. that's what we do for a living. that's my day job. however, i've also been fascinated by interspace. book looks on your shoulders is the most complex object in the known universe. if we were to create a computer that can simulate the free, the computer would be the size of a city block. but i think the computer with me. energy would require a nuclear power plant to fire it up in a river to cool it down. but your brain operates on
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20 watts of power. so when someone calls you a dimbulb, that's a compliment. you don't need a nuclear power plant to energize your rain. just a hamburger is fine. so how is it possible? well, my latest book, "the future of the mind," i'm proud to say is no number one on "the new york times" bestseller list. [applause] so i'm not the only one fascinated by the mind because the book is now the number one hardcover book in the united states. a previous book was also a bestseller because it is that the future. in fact they tell me this is the first time in history that the work for six "the new york times" bestsellers list. and i did it twice.
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in physics of the impossible, i even go 500 years into the future when we have starships, teleportation, maybe even time travel. and answer the question, what happens if you go into a time machine? go back in time to meet your teenage mother before you are born and she falls in love with you. well, if your teenage mother falls in love with you before you are born, you are in deep to do with that happens. so let us talk about the two greatest mysteries in the universe, the origin of the universe and was seen on your shoulders. interspace and outer space. last year the politicians got wind of the excitement. we've learned more in the last five to 10 years about the mind
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and are of human history combined. present at iraq obama last year got wind of this and in his state of the union address announced the brain initiatives. just like the human genome project changed the course of medicine, giving us a desk with all of our genes on it, obama announced reading initiative. the europeans, $1 billion, billion, not million book the devoted to cricket and a map of the brain. we will have to genome and the connector. other noble connections of the mind on a disk. the short-term goal is to cure mental illness. mental illness has been with us since biblical times. even the bible mentions mental
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illness. but if we have to genome onto desks, in some sense if you die, you live forever. you live forever in some sense because your personality, your memories, wants and desires are coded inside the disc. so when i was a kid, i was fascinated at telepathy, reading minds from telekinesis, moving objects with the mind, recording memories, uploaded memories, photographic dreams. believe it or not, we can do all of the above and you will see that in today's sideshow. when i was a kid, used to try to read people's minds. i tried real hard to move object with the mind. i finally came to the conclusion that he be there are two telepath that walked the surface
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of the earth. but i wasn't one of them. and then in science fiction of course it's full -- the matrix when even reality -- reality itself is a memory up loaded into the mind. so let me ask you a question. late at night, just before you go to sleep, late at night, have you ever had the weird sensation that may be, maybe life is solution, maybe it's just a memory up bogeyman to remind what the matrix and you are the only one that's real if someone is testing you to see whether
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you are smart enough to figure out that you are the only real one. raise your hand if you've ever had that feeling. well, you're crazy. [laughter] you said you're the only one in the universe? gives me. you see, i'm the only one in the universe. i'm sitting in my bed right now. this is just a memory up loading into my mind. i'm sitting in my bed all by myself. hollywood of course is always ahead of us and comes to uploading them race, no one can do a better than the former governor of california. [laughter] the former governor of california had the memory of being married to sharon stone up in his mind and look what happened to him. this is total recall. in total recall, arnold schwarzenegger is the good guy.
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for 99% of the movie he's a good guy. he's the hero and in the last film, you'll find out he's actually the bad guy with great memories uploaded. it's the only movie i know where he spoke to hero and the villain simultaneously. and then we have iron man comics and movies, exoskeletons. we cannot do this in the laboratory. in fact, the pentagon released as thousands of wounded warriors from iraq and afghanistan not connecting the brain directly to a mechanical arm and exoskeletons, bypassing the spinal cord totally. and then why not live our life through an "avatar" surrogates have the country perfect
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toddies. they're superhuman strength. they're perfect, gorgeous. why not live our life through a surrogate for "avatar"? this could be the future of the space program. outerspace is dangerous. have you seen the movie sandra bullock, gravity? space is dangerous, so why not then why you and your in your hot tub and living room. from your hot to me eventually control and master not in others base. nasa is looking into this possibility and then i used to dream about telekinesis, moving objects with the mind. this is the movie carrie, why telekinetic is bullied all of her life and finally she can't take it anymore, so that the senior prom she destroys the entire high school. what's the lesson here? the lesson here is that retaken
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telekinetic to the senior prom. [laughter] and then, superman, the iconic figure of the comet looks. hollywood is right there again. every kid knows that superman father died when krypton blew a period that the latest movie has a twist. you see the latest movie, superman's father is reduced to a computer program. his connector, has mind, his past praise the bread and it comes back to life as russell crowe. russell crowe is a hologram with the personality quirks, all the expressions of superman's father. this could be the end product of president barack obama's great
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initiative. we will have a disk called brain 2.0. brain 2.0 lives on, even after we die. and then, the question is can the mind exists without the body? 200, 300 years ago, people thought the spirit, the soul with different from flesh and blood. then we have modern science which tells us no, no, no, the brain as computer web are in the mind of software. the mind is software, but you see if we can put the mind on a disk called to connect on, this billion dollars project to president barack obama in some sense can be separate from the body just as the ancients once thought. that was hollywood. now let's talk about science.
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because of physics, we can now peer brain into thinking process that the mind. we can actually see thoughts ricocheted across the mind like a ping-pong ball. we can actually see mental illness and action. this is a brain scan. on the left is the brain when you tell the truth. the areas represent blood flow, which is easy to measure with an mri scan. when you tell the truth, nothing happens. when you tell a lie, first you have to know the truth. then you have to create the lie. and you have to calculate the consistency of july with all the other lies you've been telling all these years. that's a lot of brainpower. your brain is like a christmas tree.
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now if you take a look at the brain, look at it from that point of view of evolution. our brain is taken to cn. but that part of the brain is the most ancient part of the brain. it's called the reptilian brain. when you're in a car accident and you get whiplash by kerry, sometimes you lose your sense of balance because what his backyard is the most ancient part of the brain, the reptilian brain. the middle is the monkey brain, the brain of the motion, the brain of social hierarchy. hot teen ipaq for forming coalitions, understanding the intentions of other people. the front of the brain is the thinking brain. that is the brain of humans. not that we have brain scans, we can test old wives tales to see whether these old wives tales about the mind are true or not.
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for example, many people -- many parents when i look at their teenage children are thoroughly convinced that teenagers are brain damaged. ask him that are brain damaged. you can actually see that with brain scans. it's amazing. the prefrontal lobe is not fully formed and teenagers. the next time you argue that teenagers, you know he's brain damaged. another old wives tale is that when a man's tax to it pretty girl he starts to ask. you look at a brain scan of a man talking to a pretty girl and blood drains from the prefrontal cortex. mann act,. it's absolutely true. you can see it but rain scans. so old wives tales cannot be tested again by your period and
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then, if you were to cut the brain horizontally, you have to hemispheres on the last and the right hemispheres in different parts are connected to different parts of the body. if you electrified this part of the brain, does that hurt us all. the brain has the pain sensors. the brain cannot feel pain. if you hit this with the electrode, then your opposite hand moves. you have this with electricity, then this part of your hand moves. it turns out that in epileptics we have to cut the connection between the left and the right hemispheres and then something bizarre. something mysterious begins to happen. when you cut the connection between the left and the right hemisphere, gradually two personalities begin to emerge. two different lines in the same brain begin to emerge.
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we see this. all of a sudden you had to do what they with your hand and your other hand goes like this. in one documented case, one half of the grade was an atheist. the other half of the grade was a believer. now in the future i'm sure that we are going to find a brain such that one has his republican and the other half is democrat. can you imagine going to the polling booth and you have to hit the switch and all of a sudden there's a struggle between the left and the right over polling done the switch? yes, this could actually happen because we now have brain scans. not just superstitions about the mind. now in the old days, back in the 1950s, you have to put on this helmet. you look like a refugee from "star trek." all of these electrodes -- we don't do that anymore because we
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have computers. computers allow us to decipher all of this mismatch that comes out of the mind. in the future, brain rain scans will be. in the upper left, children will now play video games mentally. they put on a hat and. they had been take separate you from their mind and they control an "avatar" inside a video game. on the right is what is happening in japan. in japan if they had been on your head at party. it has two tiers on it every time for someone who's interested, the era scarlet is. when he talked to retired to restart, a realist or come up in like that. so with this headset, you'll know ahead of time if you're going to go home alone at night.
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i think i'm going to give these to my students in college. i will see all my students if there appears go like that now set asp,, at. so you can do this now. this has gotten the attention of apple computers and microsoft. they are looking into this. on the lower left, maybe one day you will simply control your laptop by thinking. the headset will pick up radio from the brain. computers will decipher the signal and move the cursor. you can already type. wicked dirty type and the power of the mind because computer cannot decipher your what your thinking about. all of a sudden fashion models, people at the forefront of high fashion will start to write the thing. they'll be fashionable to control computers this way. in the future when they would
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you walk room, you may mentally turn on the lights, mentally set or missed that, mentally turn on the tv, mentally call for the car to mentally drive the car, just by thinking about it. this is my colleague, stephen hawking, the great cosmologists. he's now lost control of his fingers. he could only blink. that's all he could do. we are physicists. what we did was put a chip in his right class. next time you see stephen on television, look at this rate for a period there is a chip in his class. that chip picks up radio from his brain, converts it to signals that operate a laptop computer. so this is us even now communicates with the world. but not just a laptop. why not an exoskeleton. this is what has been done at
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brown university, duke university. they put a chip ran on top of the brain. it doesn't hurt because the brain doesn't have been been a pain sensors. the mischief is connected to a laptop, which then controls the wheelchair. this gentleman here had a stroke. he is a vegetable. he cannot scratch his nose. he cannot talk. he cannot do anything but link. link is the only thing he can do. they put a chip in his brain and connected it to a computer. he can now surf the web. he could read e-mail, write e-mail, play video games, do crossword puzzles, operate household appliances, anything you can do on a computer, he can also do and he is totally paralyzed. we have now connected also at
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brown university paralyzed woman for a mechanical arm. she also is totally paralyzed. she can only link. when they connected her to mimic chemical arms, she could pick up a coca-cola for the first time in years and scratch her nose. they asked her, how do you feel quite achieved linked and she blinked and she spelled out the words i want robot legs next. well, that is coming, too because the pentagon but when and they realized think of all of the wounded warriors in iraq and of guinness to. no arms, no legs. what is their country doing for veterans? what we are doing is creating mechanical arms. mechanical arms that are so sensitive you can pick up an egg without breaking it. he confessed them. you can high five.
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get a handshake. that is a delicate these arms are built at johns hopkins university. not only that, but complete exoskeletons are next. we are going to bypass the spinal cord for these people. think of the people injured as car accident. strokes, football accidents on the football field. hundreds of them, thousands of people who are partially or fully pull it paralyzed. we'll make sure they walk again by bypassing the spinal cord. at duke university, there is one scientist from brazil. he is creating this exoskeleton for somebody who is totally paralyzed so that he can start the world cup soccer games in brazil. for the next time you watch the international soccer cup games in brazil, they will be initiated a somebody who is a vegetable, totally paralyzed
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with an exoskeleton. in japan, looking at syracuse, avatars, like the movie "avatar." in the movie "avatar," you are in a piety consoled mentally another beating. this is no japan, where we have the robot connected to a man with electrodes and he controls the robot. this could be the future of police work, firemen, emergency work. people put their lives on the line. why not have a robot do it. and you could also be the future of education. surrogates, they one day be in the classroom. this is a circuit that shows a picture of somebody sitting in bed. the teacher looks at the circuit the face of the people sick in bed and the people in turn sees
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an image of the teacher while the suit is sick. remember when we were young, we used to play hooky? those are the good old days, bright? bear god. isn't the future wonderful? will never be able to play hooky again because the teacher always know every single day, there's the surrogate right there in that chair. and the brain is connected to the eyes. why not use as a way to put information directly into the brain. this is the future of the internet. the future of the internet is to be in your contact lens. you blink and you go online. who are the first people to the internet contact lenses? college students taking final examinations. [laughter] my students will blink and see all the answers to my exam right
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there in front of them. and who's the second person by internet contact lenses? president barack obama so he doesn't have to have these teleprompters giving a speech whenever he gives his speech. who's the third person to get internet contact lenses? vice president joe biden so he never says anything goofy again. [laughter] van, valentine's day. think of all the r-romeo is for a tongue-tied. they can't say roses are red, violets are blue. think of all the romeos who can't get a palm off the crowd for not doing. in the future, all the tongue-tied romeos will have uniform words emanating from the mask of a bite out of a poetry book because it is a poetry book. nasa is interested in this because astronaut from outer space have to see the blueprint.
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they are in outer space forgot fake and there is nor blueprint. they will see the blueprint right there in your eyes. these contact lenses, by the way, will also recognize people's faces. so when you bump into somebody, you will always know who they are. how many times have you been in a conference like this you up into somebody and you say i know this person. jim, john, jake, who is this person? in the future, the contact lens will say it is jim,. you want to see his complete biography next to his name? you see him every time there is a meeting here at rainy day books. i must say you are looking for a job. you are the cocktail party and you know there's some very important people at the cocktail party but you don't know who they are. and the future, you'll know exactly who to up to at any cocktail party. husband and wives will connect
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your contact lenses together. how many 10 has the husband or wife card shopping and brought the wrong thing. go back and return not apple. in the future you will see what your husband or wife will see and say no, don't i not apple. by this he they will repair damage we are your second machine that, put out fires, explore outer space and you will be in hot tab from the mentally controlling these gadgets. so, computerized prosthetics could enhance the human value. and next is uploading memories. this was once considered science fiction. but now we do it. last year at lake forest university of north carolina and also in los angeles, they took a
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mouse, trained the mouse to drink water from a bottle. he quoted the member in the hippocampus. the rat thing in the middle the brain. they recorded the memory. later the mouse forgot. but then they've reinstated the tape recorder back into the hippocampus and bingo, the mouse remembered. this is the first time in world history that we've recorded a memory and played it back, uploaded that member into a mouse. next, primates. very soon now we will record memories of them on key perhaps even banana, record it and then she bit back in and the monkey will remember everything that i forgot. next, alzheimer's patient. we are going to create a raid pacemaker for alzheimer's
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patients. that's the short-term goal. we are going to create a button. you push the button and the memory of who you are, your children are, where you live, where you've left your keys will be of 30 back into your mind. and who knows, even beyond that, maybe you push a button and insert the memory of a vacation that you never had. or if you're a college student, think of all the courses you flunk in college. maybe we'll be able to upload some of that information workers will get laid off because of technology. maybe they will upgrade their skills not by going to community college, but by simply uploading the memory. so the hippocampus is the gateway to memory. now, when the hippocampus is damaged, like in a stroke, you cannot form long-term memories. there is a sad case of a guy named mr. malloy said his
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hippocampus is damaged as surgery. when you greet him, you say hello, how are you and then you won't forget. he would forget that he met you and start all over again. hello, how are you? and he would do this for decades. for decades he would repeat the same memory over and over again. late in life, he saw himself in a mirror and he was shocked to see an old man in the mirror. he said that can't be made. i made you and. i am young. and then he would forget the memory of seeing himself as an old man and he would go back and say hello, hello, hello, how are you? this is so bizarre that to hollywood movies were created about 10. when his 51st dates with drew barrymore. and the other one is groundhog day with bill murray.
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and then the question is, can you photograph of not now? normally you would say was more ephemeral sleeping than a thought? well, at berkeley, where he got my phd years ago, you can actually do it. you put somebody in a brave and good to bring skin converts the image of fair-minded to 30,000 dot. now that it's an mri machine today. you can't rent skin yourself every day. but on the right is the world's smallest mri machine. it is only bisbee. it uses supercomputers to compensate for weak magnetic field. according to the lot of physics, how small can you make a huge mri machine? the answer is supported to the laws of physics, we can make an mri machine this big. your cell phone will have pewter
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power than a university hospital today. your medicine cabinet will have more medical knowledge than a university hospital today. so here's how we do it. we take the brain, but it's an mri scan the computer spits out 30,000 dots. each dot represents a good idea to bring. the new software program analyzes 30,000 dots and present a picture. these are some of the first pictures of a thought. on the left is steve martin. this next to it is the image of steve martin is seen through your brain. it is not perfect because it's only 30,000 dots. a picture may have a million pixels. but hey, the fact we can do this at all is amazing.
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this is a picture of an elephant, a person in error please send then the computer image generated by a computer. then what you do is you put this person in an mri machine and you have the go to sleep. now when he sleeps, he dreams of a computer program just keeps on going. the first group pictures of the truth came out last year. in the future, you may wake up, push a nifty picture you had the previous night adventure for me they did something amazing. according to a clydesdale, some of us had lucid dreaming abilities. we are conscious when we dream. we can actually change the course of the dream. we know we are dreaming while we are dreaming. this is called lucid dreaming. how many people the audience have ever experienced in a dream
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where you knew you were dreaming? well, it turns out that this old wife's tale is so. germany last year they brain scan may lucid dreamer and he controlled the direction of history and was followed up with an mri scan. it is absolutely true. so maybe one day leonardo dicaprio smithian section is not so far-fetched after all. and then, the big web. mental illness. this is why president barack obama and the european union want to dump a billion dollars to find out how the brain is miswired. it turns out, for example, many of our leading figures, actors, actress is, proposers coming musicians have suffered from
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bipolar disorder. on the upper left of the forks in total, as margot kidder. she became famous as lois lane. however, several years ago they found her homeless, stark, hiding the hon garbage cans and it was revealed that she suffers from bipolar is. many actresses and famous actors suffer. we can now bring in these people and we now cannot cure them, but we understand how mental illness forms to a degree. schizophrenics, for example, hear voices. if you want to see a schizophrenic, just go downtown, see the homeless and you'll see people talking to themselves. that is classic schizophrenia. when you bring skin these people, you find something very interesting. the left part of your brain generates voices. you talk to yourself. we all talked herself of the
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time. but the front part of the brain, the conscious brain is aware of it. and these people, when they have voices recede to their mind, the left part of their brain lights up, but the fun part of the brain is unaware. in other words, they are talking to themselves without their permission or their knowledge. if you when they heard a voice inside your brain that was outside of your conscious control, you think you were going crazy, right? well, that's what we have here. we can actually see that now these people that we can now even go into history. joan of arc was perhaps one of the most legendary figures in all of history. a teenager who changes the course of a war, changes the course of european history because she said she talked to god. we are not sure. it turns out if you have
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epileptic lesion in your brain, some of them, 10%, 20% become hyper religious. you see ghosts, and demons everywhere. we think that perhaps the prophets of old got hit in the head and they began to see ghosts, demons everywhere. said joan of arc suffered from the thing you can actually use this artificially. you can put on a helmet. a helmet is just radio, duplicating this effect and you feel you're in the presence of god. this is called a god helmet, we put on a helmet and you feel that you are the present to god. so scientists been signed as decided to put a nine and an atheist inside the helmet to see what they can achieve their beliefs. for the atheists, they chose richard perkins.
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so richard dawkins, the atheist biologists put on the helmet and i may not put on the helmet and they asked, does this change your religious beliefs? richard dawkins says now, he's still at it he is. and he asked for none, does this change your belief, the fact you can induce religious beliefs? she said no. god created us with a telephone. a telephone in our brains that we can communicate with god. so the scientists were unable to change anyone's beliefs. some days you can't win. and then, the question is, what about super genius? what about people who are off scandal, have fantastic photographic memories of artistic and mathematical abilities? it turns out that there was a boy who had a bullet go through the left temporal lobe. there was a man who hit the left
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side of his head on the bottom of a pool it afterwards both of them became steeper mathematical genius. this has now been documented, acquire semi-behavior. tonight, do not pick up a hammer and do not hate yourself on the left temporal lobe thinking you're going to become a genius afterwards. however, some of these people have photographic memories that we've analyzed. this gentleman here for example takes a helicopter ride over manhattan and draws the entire vista at the manhattan harbor commence at new york harbor from memory. he did it for hong kong, london and new york city. when you go to jfk airport in your land american airlines tunnel, work up and you will see this huge mural drawn from
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memory. this man who had one to ride over manhattan. how do you do this? if they can do it, we can do it. we are not that different from these people. so how is that? well, we are not sure. one serious when you have a memory, we used to think, but the memory decays with time. it gets old. it wears out and disappears. we don't think that anymore. we now believe that forgetting to say jerry cobb cave or chemical process. in these people, their brain records, but the forgetting mechanism is broken. they have forgot how to forget. therefore, they remember everything. you can ask them, what were you
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doing in 1854 at 4:00 in the afternoon on may 2nd and they will tell you what they were doing at that time. and then we have another question of asperger's syndrome. true genius from isaac newton. isaac newton hands-down is the greatest scientists who ever lived. einstein said that and he was a very strange person. he couldn't have smallpox. he couldn't shoot chat with you. you'd be horrified at dinner conversation. you would not want to invite isaac newton for dinner. if you want to see somebody with asperger's syndrome, just watch the big egg eerie on cbs television. asperger's people are strange. they don't make eye contact. they are clueless when it comes to women, just like on the big
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egg theory. they estimate the greatest nobel prize winners suffered from asperger's syndrome. and then, there's two genius of modern times. albert einstein. did you know that we had einstein's brain? when einstein died in the 255, the doctor who did the autopsy kidnapped the parade without anyone's permission. he took to bring home and kept in a cooler for 30 years. was sitting in his living room underneath the books for 30 years could one day he drove across country to put einstein's brain in a mayonnaise jar. einstein's brain went through a lot of problems over decades because this man said this is a piece of history and he cannot cremated. he took it home, but he didn't know what to do with it. at the princeton university.
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i have a chapter chapter analyzing the greatest brain of modern times. but what about sigmund freud? believe it or not, we cannot reanalyze sigmund freud in psychology from a modern point of view. sigmund freud, many people think he was a crock, crazy, superego unconscious mind. how do you measure those things? now we can with brain scans. you can actually see there is a pleasure center at the center of the brain. there is a libido, a part of the brain that governs pleasure. in fact come if you take a mouse and a collector as the nucleus of hummus, the pleasure center in the electrodes to a telegraph key, the mouse will hit the telegraph key twice per second until it starts to death. so they went to gods, cat and
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even up to a dolphin. they had a dolphin up so when a dolphin swim for it, it would hit in the lecture to stimulate its pleasure center. well, the dolphin would hit the electrodes twice a second until the dolphin realized i will die. i'm starving to death. then the dolphin stopped, gripes food and came back in himself again. and then the question is, what is consciousness? you know, so many people have written about the state of consciousness. never in the history of science have so many britons so much to produce so little. i have a new theory of consciousness in the book. i'm not time to get into it, but
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i believe animals have consciousness. our conscience is different from animals. the guests come even dogs, cats i think our conscience. in fact, how many people in this room have a cat at home? research and good when you come home, the cat comes in teresa goes right at your leg and you said that's a nice cat. how affectionate. right? wrong. if you are to scan the brain of a cat, the cat will be thinking, and this human is mine. i own this human. i will put my hormone on this human leg so i bearcat cannot, my territory. in fact, i trained this human. this human feats we twice a day. good human, good human. [laughter] that is what is going on in the cat's consciousness. and why are cats loaners? why did they come up next to you
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and then all by themselves? because they are descended from the wildcat. the wildcat is a solitary hunter. they do not hunt in packs at all. they used to be alone just like greta garbo what they want to be alone. how many in this room have a dog? a lot more. when you come home, the dow jones that human slobbers all over you. why? because a dog thinks that you are a dog except you are top dog. you are the alpha dog. they are the underdog because dogs are pack animals. they hunt in groups. thursday pecking order. it's very rigid pecking order. who was first? the alpha male. who was last? the delta mail. that is why dogs are man's best friend is they actually think you are a dog. why would dogs like to be with people? because they are pack animals.
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they like to hunt in groups. it did however that the low estate of conscious this is a thermostat. one unit at feet back. that's what i call one unit of consciousness. even thermostats i believe our conscience. the unit of consciousness as a thermostat. a flower has maybe 10 units. it registers water, sunlight, gravity, moisture, carbon dioxide. soy flour may have 10 units of consciousness. as i said before, the back of your brain is the reptilian brain. it understands space. it knows where it is located. it knows who the brain is. but not much more. that is level one consciousness. space. then bubble to consciousness, maquis consciousness. the monkey brain located at the
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center of your brain. this is the brain of the emotions become the greatest social hierarchies at the brain of pecking orders. and level three, what makes us different? we see the future. animals do not. animals don't plan for tomorrow. when it gets cold, they hibernate because it is instinct is. when it gets cold and we pack our bags, which raised our homes, we fret about, all sorts of things. we see the future. we daydream. we planned, strategize. animals don't. animals have no conception of time. that is no conception tomorrow. if this theory is correct, i have to explain everything about the mind including things as ephemeral as humor. you may say to yourself, humor
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is so spiritual, so much out there that you'll never be able to explain it in the theory of consciousness. i don't think so. why is a joke funny? the joke is funny because you hear some day in the menu can we begin to. your brain is a prediction machine. it constantly predicts the ending. you have no choice. when you're a joke your brain computes the ending. and then you laugh and that's why things are funny. for example, teddy roosevelt's daughter was one of the cost of bloggers of the white house. she loved cost up and she's famous for saying it. zero, if you have nothing good to say about other people, then please come sit next to me. debussy feels is asked a question about young people,
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educating young people. he was asked the question, are you in favor of clubs for young people? wcco says in an favor of clubs for young people? yes, but only if kindness fails. and then the bible says, the point is the bible says 212 letters as you would have them do unto you, except do a first. now why are these funny? because when you hear the expression that your mother taught you, that if you don't have anything nice to say about somebody, then don't say anything at all, right? to complete the thought. you have no choice. your brain is a prediction machine. but what the punchline is, the come sit next to me. it is funny because we didn't expect that. i say even humor can be understood in my theory of
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consciousness. now we are running out of time, so i will skip the discussion of robots other day to say that robots are level one. robots are like alligators. they are not much more intelligent than alligators. slowly, we are beginning to create emotional robots. the most advanced robot is built in japan. use i pictured earlier. run, walk with a little boy, climb upstairs. the world's most advanced robot can even dance. in fact, he dances much better than me. i've been on a number of tv specials where he dances better than me every time. so interview from abc, the creator of the world's most advanced robot. i asked the inventor how smart -- how smart is the world's most advanced robot? and he said on camera, he said that creation is a smart is a
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cockroach, a cockroach. we have a long ways to go before robots become smarter than us. let me wind up by saying that yes, president barack obama has this brain initiative to create brain 2.0, a copy of the brain to understand why his risk wired? why do we have mental illness? but we can understand the wiring of the brain, perhaps he will also have a form of immortality. the other question is when you die, do you live forever? to paraphrase bill clinton, it all depends how you define the word you. are you web layer and software? if so, when you die, you die. or even information? if so, information can double
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every 18 months. this is moore's law. as the rate at which can peeters are growing in sophistication. for example, when you get a birthday card in the mail coming to open it up and it stinks. it sings happy birthday to you. there is a chip that not birthday card. that chip, according to this chart has more computer power than all the allied forces of 1945. hitler, churchill, roosevelt would have killed to get that chip. what do you do with it? he threw it away in the garbage. if hitler had that chip in 1940, we might all be speaking german here today rather than bush. and then look at 1969. 1969 we put two men on the moon. ever see the scrutiny mission
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control? by god, according to this chart, there were 64 processors. dinosaurs. yourself onto the hives more computer power than all of nasa in 1969. in fact, you are not going to put me in one of those rocket ships. you're not going to send them to outerspace backed up by one cell phone. it's criminal. we were shooting humans back to the one cell phone. and the internet as a consequence will become the brain. lewis said the motion, memories through the internet. can you imagine teenagers? can you imagine teenagers on faith extended the emotions, experience of their first date, a senior prom, all of it on the internet? alpo crazy. the movies that have total immersion entertainment, not just discreetly sound.
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that's the movies that today, that totally emotional con tent. and perhaps in the far future, now we are talking next century, if we have a disk with your memories, thoughts on that, perhaps we can send it into outer space. in fact, we can send it on the later be not the speed of light. this may be the way to explore, to send them to outerspace at the speed of light on a laser beam to exploit humans. ..
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>> why don't we switch places? i will put on a moustache, i will put on a wig, i will be the great einstein, and you can take a rest and be my chauffeur. well, einstein loved the joke, so today switched places. this went along famously until one day a mathematician in the back asked a very difficult question. and einstein thought, oh, the game is up. i but then the chauffeur said that question so elementary that even my chauffer here can answer it for you. [laughter] thank you very much! you've been a great audience. [applause] i'll take questions from the audience, and then i'll be happy to sign your books, okay? [applause] thank you very much. you've been a great audience.
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[applause] thank you. so we have some time for q&a. you can make the questions as hard as you want. and afterwards, please line up in an orderly fashion. i'll try to sign as many books as i can, and we'll have pictures taken as well, okay? so people are going to line up, and we have microphones in the audience. so here's your chance to talk back, okay? so come on up. yeah. >> yes, doctor. i was wondering how you, how far reaching you think the effects of fukushima are going to be on japan and the hawaiian islands and the rest of the pacific. >> okay. the question is fukushima, how
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long are we going to experience the agony of three simultaneous meltdowns in northern japan? we have the answer, 40 years. according to the utility, tokyo electric, it'll take about 40 years to begin the process of dismantling the reactor. and the accident is not over at all. a small earthquake, and it'll send the accident starting all over again. you realize that the reactor so radioactive workers cannot even get in for more than just a few minutes at a time. they sent in robots. robots are not smart enough to work in high radiation fields, total failure. and at the pentagon, the u.s. pentagon has made it a priority to create robots that can turn a screw, robots that can use a hammer, robots that can use a saw. we don't have those row pots yet. -- robots yet.
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and so the next thing they're going to do is insert cameras, cameras into the water to see where the melting is. it's so bad we don't even have a picture. we don't even have a picture of the melted core. we know it's 100% melted, and the water. the radioactive water builds up, swimming pools. when you visit talk about fukuse all these swimming pools of radioactive water. the agony is unending. and so just remember that it will take 40 years to clean up that nuclear accident. japan after world war for made a -- world war ii made a faustian with bargain, faust sold his soul to the devil for unlimited power. japan said we will go nuclear if we have no oil or coal, but there's a price we have to pay, and that is you sell your soul to the devil. but anyway, let's move on to other questions you may have.
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let's go to the next person. yes, next. >> hi. i just wanted to thank you for coming by to kansas city, and i wanted to ask you've been such an inspiration on the fact that you started at such a young age wanting to be a scientist, and of all the people that you've met in the different respective fields, do you find that being the standard about everyone starting very, very young, or do you see someone that maybe came in, like, at an older age wanting to switch over into the field of science? >> the question was, is it advantageous to start in science when you're very young. well, you can be interested in science at any age, but it does help to be young. i've interviewed, oh, about 500 scientists in my time for bbc television, i have my own radio show which goes out to 130 radio stations across the u.s. every weekend, and i always ask them the question when did it start,
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when did you get interested in science. and they always say the same thing. when i was 10. when i was 10, it was a telescope, a microscope, a chemistry kit, a visit to the planetarium, an astronomy book. something set them off, pause before 10 -- because before 10 everything is mommy and daddy, mommy and daddy. after 10 kids begin to ask what is beyond mommy and daddy. and then we get this existential shock, this epiphany realizing how huge and glorious and splend rouse the universe is. and then kids just eat it up. they want to know everything about physics and chemistry. they want to know why the sun shines, they want to know everything. and then they hit 15, and it's all over. [laughter] what is the greatest destroyer
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of scientists known to science? the greatest destroyer of scientists is junior high school. [laughter] you see, we're all born scientists. we're born wondering where did i come from, why does the sun shine, why do the stars twinkle. we're born that way until we hit junior high school. and then it is crushed out of us. all of a sudden we have to memorize useless facts, figures that don't amount to anything. all of a sudden we're called nerds by our friends. all of a sudden it's hard to get a date. all of a sudden the hormones are kicking in. so it's difficult. and then in high school you have this pyramid, this pyramid where you have the beautiful people on top, the jocks and the cheerleaders. i have nothing against them, but there is a pyramid in high school immortalized by hollywood movies. but hollywood never tells you that as soon as you graduate from high school, that pyramid
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turns upside down. [laughter] [applause] they never tell you that. [applause] look at bill gates, look at steve jobs, look at mr. zuckerberg. these are billionaires, leaders in in innovation technology. they were at the bottom of the pyramid when they were this high school. in high school. okay, next. >> hi. thank you for your speech, it was very nice. so i was wondering, you mentioned that you could take a chip with someone's memory and insert it back into the rat or -- so that they can remember it again. so as it's progressing, it pay be that someone's memory may be with inserted into another person's brain. so there's controversy over doing something like this because memories are personal and meant to be for just a single person. how do you think the public will respond, is and how do you personally think of this, like, new technology in the future? >> the question is what are the ethical implications of being able to insert not just true
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memories, but false memories. courses you never took, dates you never had, vacations you never experienced can all be uploaded, we think, in the future. there are big ethical considerations because what happens if a criminal gets this? and uploads the memory of a crime that you never committed? our legal justice system depends upon eyewitness accounts. we have witnesses who say that, yeah, they'll tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth. but what happens if you can tamper, tamper with people's memories? then eyewitness accounts cannot be trusted anymore. therefore, i i in -- i think ths has to be regulated. if we get to the point where we can insert whole memories into the mind, then they have to be labeled that this memory is false, this vacation you never had. but it's fun anyway, so i'll pay money, and i'll experience a vacation. so we're going to have to regulate it to make sure that
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false memories are clearly labeled false memories so you don't confuse what is real and what is false. and for people who worry about security, some people think that in the future maybe a cia agent will record your memories from a distance. that's not going to happen because in order to tap into the mind, you have to put a probe either directly on top of the brain, which is painless, or put a helmet right on top of the brain. further away the radio signals dance so that it's less than background, gibberish, noise. noise interferes with the radio signals. so the lesson is you have to be right up to the person's brain in order to record things. so the problem is not privacy because someone will record your memories, the problem is that you may willingly, willingly make a memory that is recorded,
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but then somebody else sells it. so you have to make sure that your memories are kept private. so that is a whole other area which will play out in the years. but remember, right now we can only record one memory at a time. but in the future we can foresee a time when memories may have to be regulated just like software. >> thank you. >> yeah. yeah, next? >> [inaudible] >> you were talking about how -- >> [inaudible] >> yeah, okay. first of all, the question is about asperger's and what does it show about how the brain is wired up. well, first of all, asperger's, we think, is a mild form of autism. and a certain fraction of people with autism bin to develop
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these -- begin to develop these enormous mathematical, artistic abilities. not all autistic children, but a good fraction of them begin to excel in certain directions. but they may have an iq of maybe 80. they may be, quote, mentally retarded. they have to be confined to institutions. so how is that possible? the new thinking is that it is damage to the left temporal lobe that creates these savants. the damage could occur for many reasons; a bullet, a blow to the head or damage from autism. so we now believe that autism is not the only way to have these mathematical powers. people with asperger's have these mathematical powers without having to have a low iq. these people are functional. isaac newton, paul durant, they
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were functional in society. in fact, newton was actually a member of parliament during his lifetime. and so we're now beginning to understand that autism and savant behavior are not inevitably linked, that it may be possible to ip deuce this kind of -- induce this kind of behavior, and we think that asperger's is a form of this where you can actually control it. you can actually function in society with as asperger's and still have these mathematical powers. in fact, one study done just last year at silicon valley showed that many silicon valley engineers have a higher rate of asperger's than the average population. but you probably knew that already watching "the big bang theory," right? clueless, these people are sometimes clueless when it comes to women. but this is something that we're still investigating, so we have a long ways to go before we fullly understand autism -- fully understand autism and asperger's. but now that we have brain scans, we can actually see that their brain is slightly
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different from the average. yep. >> i was curious as to what your thoughts were on the subject of quantum consciousness and how it's related to theoretical physics. >> okay. there is in my book i have a chapter on kwan term consciousness -- can funnel consciousness which is -- quantum consciousness which is perhaps the most bizarre form of consciousness in all of science. according to the quantum theory, norgd for something -- in order for something to exist, somebody has to look at it. somebody has to make an observation. before you observe something, in principle it could exist in all possible states. when you look at it, it then assumes one state. therefore, the observer in some sense determines existence. but observation requires consciousness. conscious people make the
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observation. so the greatest paradox in all of science is the cat problem. if i have a cat in a box and i don't open the box, the cat could be either dead or alive. so how do we physicists describe a cat that you cannot observe? well, we add the dead cat to the live cat. we add the two waves together. so the cat is neither dead, nor alive. until you open the box. now, einstein thought this is stupid. [laughter] i mean, how can you be neither dead, nor alive at the same time? well, what can i say? einstein was wrong. you can be here or there at the same time. so this is the greatest paradox in all of science. how do you resolve the fact that you can have dead cats and live
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cats simultaneously exist in a nether state before you make the observation? and if you, if you ever find the solution to this puzzle, tell me first. [laughter] nobel prize winners debate this question. there is an alternative. the alternative vision is that the universe splits in half. in one universe the cat is dead, in the other universe the cat is alive. and universes keep splitting into other universes. and that theory seems to be the one preferred by string theory. and then this lends us to the last question, and the last question is, is elvis presley still alive in another parallel universe? [laughter] well, the answer is possibly, yes. possibly yes. if this theory is correct and the universe splits, then perhaps if one universe -- in
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one universe the king is still alive. let's take one last question because i have to get to signing your books, and i have to get toward getting photographs, taking care of one last question, okay? yeah. oh, look at that. superhero on his t-shirt. [laughter] >> thank you. my question was if you could put someone's thoughts and stuff onto a disk, could you, like, build them a robot body and put them in there, and they could just live out their lives in a robot body? >> okay, if you can put the mind onto a disk, the question is can that disk then be put into a robot, and then you would have super powers? this is something that cannot be ruled out. if one day -- this is far from the future -- we put all our pathways of the brain onto a disk and put this disk into a robot, the robot could be perfect. the robot could be handsome, gorgeous, beautiful, superhuman
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with the powers of a cyborg and look just like us. except have super powers. this is something that cannot be ruled out. this is called homo superior. however, i should point out that's a hundred years away. so we're not going to see it in our lifetime, okay? however, it is something that you cannot rule out, the fact that maybe these surrogates maybe will live our life as surrogates, and that's what the movie "surrogates," starring bruce willis was all about. in that world people preferred to live in superhuman bodies. they don't want to go back to being human anymore. they prefer to be superhuman. and then, of course, because it's a hollywood movie, bruce willis messes it all a up and turns off all the superhuman bodies at the end. okay, anyway, thank you so much for being here today. [applause] what i want to do now is sign

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